.45-70 vs. .500 S&W - Page 3 - Graybeard Outdoors
Reply
 
LinkBack Thread Tools
post #21 of 29 (permalink) Old 03-15-2019, 02:12 PM
Senior Member
 
nw_hunter's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2006
Location: SW Oregon
Posts: 7,435
Default

.45-70 at Two Miles: The Sandy Hook Tests of 1879
Rifle Magazine ^ | November 1977 | W. John Farquharson
Posted on 2/14/2003, 5:18:19 PM by 45Auto

THE SHOOTER at the heavy bench rest squinted as he aligned his .45-70 Allin-Springfield Model 1873 Army rifle on the distant target. The rifle fore-stock and barrel was cradled in a rest; the butt was supported by his shoulder. The rear sight was flipped up to its full height, so with no stock support for his head, the rifle tester from Springfield Armory worked carefully to align high rear and low muzzle sight on the speck that was the target - a surveyed 2,500 yards distant.

Holding his breath, he squeezed the 7-pound trigger. The rifle fired, and some 15 seconds later, signals from the target indicated that his shot had struck well inside the 6-foot diameter bullseye on a target well over a mile away!

The Report of the Secretary of War, 1880, Volume III, under the chapter titled, "Extreme Ranges of Military Small Arms," had this to say:

"The firing was done by Mr. R.T Hare of Springfield Armory who has the enviable distinction, so far as is known, of being the only person in the world who has hit the 'Bull's-Eye' six feet in diameter at 2,500 yards with three different rifles, and who has ever fired at and hit so small a target as that described in this report at 3,200 yards.

In comparison with this, all other so-called 'long range firing' pales into insignificance. The gun was held under the arm, a muzzle rest only being used."

The chapter on long range firing begins with a report from the Armory at Springfield, Massachusetts, May 9, 1879. It records the results of long range tests of U.S. Army Model 1873 .45-caliber rifles using 405 and 500-grain lead bullets, including variations in muzzle velocity and penetration of lead bullets through one-inch target boards and into sand. These tests were made at the request of the Chief of Ordnance. His interest had been aroused by reports of long range infantry fire, up to 1 miles, during the1877-78 Turko-Russian War.

The line age of the "trapdoor" rifles used in the tests is apparent from the separate lock plate, the massive side hammer, the milling out of a portion of barrel and fitting a breechblock hinged at the front - all clear indications that the rifles were merely breech-loading variations of the traditional muzzle-loading infantry-man's rifle. The Allin conversion of the 1861 and 1863 models Springfield muzzle-loaders came out first in .58 caliber rimfire. Later refinements resulted in the .50-70 rimmed centerfire for the 1866 model. The .45-70 cartridge was first introduced with the Model 1873 single shot Springfield. Several model changes were made from 1873 through 1889, relatively minor differences being the type of sights, modified and improved breech-blocks and changes in stock furniture.

The first long range tests were made at ranges of up to 1,500 yards on the Springfield Armory test range at Long Meadow, Massachusetts. These tests compared the long distance shooting and penetration performance of the .45 caliber trapdoor Springfield and the .45 caliber Martini-Henry rifles.

The Springfield rifle weighed about 9.6 pounds, had a rifle barrel 33 inches long with a bore diameter of .450-inch, three grooves and a right hand twist and groove depth of .005-inch. It fired the then standard Service round consisting of the 405-grain bullet in the rimmed straight case 2.1 inches long with 70 grains of black powder giving a muzzle velocity (MV) of 1,350 feet-per-second (fps). With the same weight of bullet and a charge of 85 grains of powder, the MV was 1,480 fps.

The British Army .450-577 Martini-Henry lever-operated, drop-block action was far stronger than the Allin trapdoor breech. The Martini-Henry weighed about 9 pounds, had a barrel 33 inches long with a right-hand twist, seven groove bore. The bore diameter was .450, and the groove diameter was .463. The .450-577 Martini-Henry cartridge was a muscular creation. It was based upon a sharply necked-down and lengthened .577-inch Snider case, loaded with a 480-grain lead bullet of .445 diameter, backed by 85 grains of black powder for a muzzle velocity of 1,253 fps.

The following table gives the angles of elevation for these loads from the actual test firings at 1,000 and 1,500 yards. Accuracy firings of the rifles were made at 300, 500 and 1,000 yards.

SPRINGFIELD and MARTINI-HENRY ANGLES OF ELEVATION

1,000 yards 1,500 yards .45-85-405 Springfield Long Range 2d 40' 53" 4d 35' 34" .45-70-405 Springfield Service 3d 6' 37" 5d 20' 4" .45-85-480 Martini-Henry 3d 18' 36" 5d 41' 24"

VERTICAL and HORIZONTAL SHOT DISPERSION AT 1,000 YARDS

Mean Mean Mean Horizontal Vertical Radius Springfield 9.23" 16.8" 19.1" Martini-Henry 10.9" 14.55" 18.2"

Though there is no direct relationship between mean radius and group size figures, a mean radius of 18 to 19 inches would probably translate into a group size of between 55 and 70 inches. Old Ordnance records show that when fired from a machine rest the .45 Springfield was expected to group all of its bullets inside a 4-inch circle at 100 yards, in a 11-inch bull's-eye at 300 yards, and inside a 27-inch circle at 500 yards.

At 1,000 and 1,500 yards, as expected, the mean vertical figures are considerably larger than the mean horizontal. (See the above table.) This is the result of variations in muzzle velocity, which gives this dispersion at long range, and also the effect of the high trajectory of these rifle bullets since the target is perpendicular to the ground, while the bullet is descending at an angle.

The report of October 15, 1879, covers long range firing at Sandy Hook, New Jersey. This was done along the beach to make the location of the bullet strike easier to find. Also, the long beaches allowed shooting back to 3,200 and even 3,500 yards.

The rifles tested included a special "long range" Springfield chambered for a 2.4-inch shell instead of the standard 2.1-inch case. The 2.4-inch case held 80 grains of black powder behind the new prototype 500-grain lead bullet. The other loads tested were the standard .45-70-405 Army load in the issue M-1873 Springfield, and the .45-85-480 load in the British Martini-Henry rifle.

The report states that a leaf to the rear sight several inches long was prepared in order to obtain the necessary elevation. A combination of the V-notch slide of the regular issue sight and a screw at the bottom of the leaf afforded means of correcting for wind and drift.

The target, which had been 12 feet by 12 feet square at 1,500 yards, was changed to one 44 feet long by 22 feet high. The extended wings had a height of 16 feet.

Since one of the test's objectives was to gauge bullet penetration, the huge target consisted of three 1-inch thick boards, separated by 1-inch cleats. The target was supported on 6-inch spruce posts and was constructed partly of spruce and partly pine, since this was the wood at hand.

In the tests at 2,500 yards, the target was hit five times in seventy rounds with the .45-70-405 service load, only once with the Martini-Henry in eighty rounds, and four times with the long range Springfield in thirty shots.

When the Springfield long range cartridge was fired, the 500-grain blunt nosed lead bullets propelled by 80 grains of black powder in the 2.4-inch cases at about 1,375 fps penetrated right through the three inches of wooden target and buried themselves in the sand. One 500-grain slug pierced three inches of target and buried itself in a supporting six-inch post, giving a total penetration of a measured 5.25 inches. The Service 405-grain bullet gave a penetration of just 1.12 inches, and the Martini-Henry 480-grain bullet, 2.50 inches.

Angles of rifle elevation were: Springfield service .45-70-405 - 1708'16"; Springfield long range .45-80-500 - l038'21"; and Martini-Henry .45-85-480 - 1320'18".

The angle made by the shot holes with the face of the target appeared to be about 40 degrees for the service Springfield, 45 degrees for the Martini-Henry, and 50 degrees for the long range Springfield. This angle is taken from the vertical and thus the lower angular reading indicates the higher angle of descent. Various kinds of bullets were dug out of the sand within 45 feet of the target and directly behind it. This shows the great angle of trajectory at this range and how extremely difficult it was for Mr. R.T. Hare to hit a 2,500-yard target the size of the one used.

The target 22 feet high by 44 feet long was then placed at 3,200 yards from the firer. The range chosen was fortunate in that it was found to be the extreme for the Martini-Henry. When the firer was instructed to increase his elevation, the range decreased. On decreasing the elevation, the range increased to a certain point.

The majority of the Martini .45-85-480 balls fell from 50 to 100 yards short, while the others did not go more than 25 yards beyond. More than 300 Martini-Henry cartridges were fired, but the target was not hit.

The long range Springfield's 500-grain bullets hit the target four times - twice where it was one board thick, and twice where it was two boards thick. In each case the heavy blunt nosed lead bullet punched through the wood planks and buried itself several inches into the sand.

At this extreme surveyed range, the angle of fall of the Martini 480-grain lead bullets was about 65 degrees to 70 degrees judging from the holes in the moist sand. Bullets were found in the sand behind the 22-foot-high target at a distance of only 35 feet. It was evident that they struck the sand point on, as the lead noses were always found rough.

In the case of the long range Springfield, the angle of the shot hole with the face of the target was about 30 degrees and the heavy bullet in punching through two one-inch boards actually penetrated a total of 2.5 inches. Those lead slugs that struck in the sand generally penetrated to a depth of 8 to 10 inches, sometimes more.

In this respect the Armory's 500-grain balls surpassed the Martini's 480-grain balls, which did not penetrate more than 6 inches into sand. In trying to get the correct 3,200-yard elevation, the long range bullets were thrown over 300 yards beyond the target. These were then dug out of the beach and all were found to have struck point on.

For the .45-80-500 2.4-inch case Springfield long range rifle at a MV of about 1,375 fps, the angle of elevation was 2051'37". For the .45-85-480 Martini-Henry at 1,253 fps MV, the angle of elevation was 265l'.

The report of November 13, 1879, lists the results of firing tests made at 3,500 yards distance with two long range Springfields. One had a rifle barrel with a l-in-18 rifling twist, the other .45-80-500 had a 19 5/8-inch twist. Two different loads were used: .45-70-500, and .45-80-500. The Martini-Henry .45-85-480 and the service .45-70-405 Springfields were again tested against a Sharps-Borchardt using the same loads as in the long range M-1873 Allin-Springfields. After firing many rounds, the service Springfield and Martini-Henry rounds failed to reach the target at 3,500 yards.

In these firing experiments, two telephones provided with Blake transmitters were used for timing the bullet's flight. One was placed within a few feet of the rifle, to receive and transmit the sound of the shot. The other Blake unit was nearly two miles downrange in the shelterproof, which was located about 30 feet in front of the right edge of the target. At the instant the sound of the discharge was heard over the telephone, a watch ticking fourth-seconds was started. At the sound of the bullet striking target or sand, it was stopped. Average time of flight for the .45-70-500-grain load was 21.2 seconds, With the more powerful .45-80-500-grain cartridge the time-of-flight was 20.8 seconds.

For 3,500 yards distance, angles of elevation ran from 27 degrees to 29 degrees. This varied drastically from day to day due to the effects of head and tail winds. The quicker-twist rifles required less elevation than the others at the same range. The greatest distance obtained with the .45-caliber long range, 1-in-18 twist Springfield rifle was 3,680 yards. Angle of elevation didn't exceed 32 degrees on a day when an angle of about 25 degrees placed bullets all around the target at 3,500 yards range.

While these tests may be considered mere oddities today, they proved extremely useful at the time. The fact that the 500-grain bullet penetrated through the three-plank target and eight inches into sand meant that it could kill or wound enemy troops at extreme distances, even if they were partially protected and that was significant military information in a period when it was quite usual for large masses of troops to form up within view of defenders. Although no average infantryman could be expected to equal Mr. Hare's accuracy, a large number of defenders shooting from barricade rests and given the proper sight adjustments for the range could severely harass companies and larger bodies of enemy troops at previously unheard-of ranges. It may have been these tests, and this line of thinking, that caused military theoreticians to employ machine guns for indirect, high trajectory fire in the same manner as artillery during the earlier stages of World War I.

Since the tests showed that the 405-grain service bullet failed to perform as well as the 500-grain, and that the 500-grain bullet showed relatively little difference when propelled by either 70 or 80 grains of black powder, the .45-70-500 load in the service 2.1-inch case was adopted as standard for rifles. Thus those little-remembered Sandy Hook tests of 1879 had a lasting impact on firearms history without them, the gun companies might have recently resurrected the .45-80.

Good enough for me

I don't think of myself as a staunch Republican or Democrat.
I am a Christian and a Conservative...........In that order!
nw_hunter is offline  
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 
post #22 of 29 (permalink) Old 03-15-2019, 04:50 PM
Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 75
Default

I remember reading an article like that one some time way back when...It was interesting but moot and not germane to anything but specialized interest and certainly not to the average hunter I think nor to todays components. They were doing the same thing then as we do today...we don't really know the exact whys/wherefores...there was as much "fiddling" back then as there is todays when determining "military requirements" ...they set the parameters first and MAKE the manufactures fit them. Even though there "may" be better "things" available, if they don't fit the parameters they don't get a chance. I'm also guessing some General "liked" one better than the others and convinced the rest with the same way it happens today...it's called "Group think".

I lob 500-700 gr slugs out of my long barreled 45-120 and 50-90 out to 5-600 yds at sagerats...even hit one now and then. I don't have gongs at specific distances to shoot at just anything big enough to see and safely shootable...just for kicks...I also have highly accurate long range rifles in 6.5, 7, 338 and 50 cal I do the same with(also at targets).

Sharpshooters, luck and caprice of the "Gods" have killed many men and animals at long range with and without specialized tech...that is progress I suppose.

Even tho' I've been "long range shooting" for 30-40 years I consider myself a novice in that game because I don't have/use all the sophisticated equipment that's being used today...it somehow seems "cheating". Great for Military use but shooting an Elk or deer at 1000 yards plus is not my cup of tea. More interesting to shoot a sage rat at those distances. I keep looking at the distance measuring/calculating devices, but I also think the rutted road to is much more interesting than the destination.

I think the nostalgia over a 45-70 is a bit overblown but everytime I say thatsomeone goes ballistic. My opinion is not a diss...I now HAVE and have had a 45-70 since I was in college a long time ago, but I don't sleep with it or ANY of my myriad of shooters...they are just tools to complete a job...I grab whatever cannon I want to put bacon on the table.

Just enjoy whatever toy you have, use or like.

Good Hunting
NONAGONAGIN is offline  
post #23 of 29 (permalink) Old 03-16-2019, 03:49 PM
Member
 
tdoyka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2013
Location: windber, pa
Posts: 119
Send a message via MSN to tdoyka
Default

i guess i'm "one of those guys" who download cartridges. i had a stroke several years ago and it left me without the use of right arm/leg. i use my 444 marlin(tc encore/23" MGM barrel) and 300gr fn gc(saeco) with 2400 and a tuft of dacron that averages 1624fps. it kills deer and that is what i want. the 45-70 handi rifle and a 405gr fn with a light charge of h4198 averages 1304fps. it will also kill deer but i'm not a 45-70 guy. the 500 linebaugh(tc encore/ 23" MGM barrel) and 450gr lfn gc and some hs-6 averages 1235fps . i've only killed one doe but it was dead right there(38 yards). the 30-40 krag(1898 spr armory bubbasized) and 165gr ranch dog with h4198 averages 1930fps and it will kill deer. my furthest shot on a cast boolit(30-40 krag) is 173 yards and the doe was drt. every deer i shot was thru n thru, shoulder or behind the shoulder. these cartridges kick about as much as a 30-30 and 170gr factory load, the 500L is the exception to rule, it kicks about as 30-06 with 150gr factory load will. oh....i forgot my ruger sbh in 44 mag. i'll take a 44spl and load it up with 255gr keith and some unique(skeeter load) going about 800-850fps and it will kill deer too.

my next two guns are a 9.3x57 in husky m46 and 35x30/30(JES will do it http://www.35caliber.com/8.html ) in win m94. they both will downloaded to around 1800+/- fps. the 9.3 will be 280gr fn gc and the 35 will be 200ish fn gc.

i used to be "one of those guys" that worshipped more velocity. now, i just shrug my shoulder and say "it'll get there.....eventually."

I am proud member of Basket of Deplorables!!!
"I'm tired of politicians telling Americans to defer their dreams to another day - when they really mean another decade. America is tired of waiting. The moment is now."

Donald J Trump

"democracy is just a stepping stone on the way to socialism." -me REPUBLIC of the USA

​Μολών λαβέ !

todd
tdoyka is offline  
Sponsored Links
Advertisement
 
post #24 of 29 (permalink) Old 03-18-2019, 10:34 PM Thread Starter
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Aug 2009
Posts: 1,191
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by tdoyka View Post
i guess i'm "one of those guys" who download cartridges. i had a stroke several years ago and it left me without the use of right arm/leg. i use my 444 marlin(tc encore/23" MGM barrel) and 300gr fn gc(saeco) with 2400 and a tuft of dacron that averages 1624fps. it kills deer and that is what i want. the 45-70 handi rifle and a 405gr fn with a light charge of h4198 averages 1304fps. it will also kill deer but i'm not a 45-70 guy. the 500 linebaugh(tc encore/ 23" MGM barrel) and 450gr lfn gc and some hs-6 averages 1235fps . i've only killed one doe but it was dead right there(38 yards). the 30-40 krag(1898 spr armory bubbasized) and 165gr ranch dog with h4198 averages 1930fps and it will kill deer. my furthest shot on a cast boolit(30-40 krag) is 173 yards and the doe was drt. every deer i shot was thru n thru, shoulder or behind the shoulder. these cartridges kick about as much as a 30-30 and 170gr factory load, the 500L is the exception to rule, it kicks about as 30-06 with 150gr factory load will. oh....i forgot my ruger sbh in 44 mag. i'll take a 44spl and load it up with 255gr keith and some unique(skeeter load) going about 800-850fps and it will kill deer too.

my next two guns are a 9.3x57 in husky m46 and 35x30/30(JES will do it http://www.35caliber.com/8.html ) in win m94. they both will downloaded to around 1800+/- fps. the 9.3 will be 280gr fn gc and the 35 will be 200ish fn gc.

i used to be "one of those guys" that worshipped more velocity. now, i just shrug my shoulder and say "it'll get there.....eventually."
Yes, I can see that.

I kinda divide cartridges into two basic groups. Momentum cartridges and velocity cartridges.

The momentum cartridges are the low, slow, heavy ones... .45-70 for example, usually straight wall and hail from the black powder days.

Velocity cartridges are the light, fast ones, e.g. .30-06, 7.62x54r, 7.92x57, etc. Basically all the bottleneck, smokeless cartridges.

We all know the tradeoffs of each in this forum, no doubt, as well as the history of how each came to be.

For non- combat uses, where I can be sure of the range or estimate it well and know the loading... I'm a big fan of the momentum group, because I like to cast my own bullets.

For "serious social work", or where a long flat point blank range is needed, I lean the other way, naturally.

Horses for courses, naturally.

To be honest, for most hunting with short ranges, I'm given to believe a 12 gauge shotgun with slugs or 6's, depending on what you are after will cover the vast majority of situations... but of course you have to be enough of a hunter to get close in.

For everything else, there's them new fangled bottleneck cartridges. (LOL!)
flmason is offline  
post #25 of 29 (permalink) Old 03-20-2019, 07:49 AM
Senior Member
 
jedman's Avatar
 
Join Date: Feb 2007
Location: NW Ohio , Oak Openings Area
Posts: 1,173
Gun Cabinet
Default

My 2 cents for what it's worth, I like the 45-70 much better. Although I own several 50-70's that I really like the 500 S&W to me is the wrong bore size, has to small of rim and just looks like it belongs in a revolver that has limited use.

jedman

Still kickin
jedman is offline  
post #26 of 29 (permalink) Old 03-20-2019, 09:29 AM
Member
 
Join Date: Oct 2017
Location: 3 miles NW of Brownells retail store and they keep me broke!
Posts: 631
Default

www.garrettcartridges.com/penetration.html

A good read for those that thinking hot rodding the 45-70 is needed!
gpa&hisguns is online now  
post #27 of 29 (permalink) Old 03-20-2019, 02:39 PM
Member
 
tdoyka's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2013
Location: windber, pa
Posts: 119
Send a message via MSN to tdoyka
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by jedman View Post
My 2 cents for what it's worth, I like the 45-70 much better. Although I own several 50-70's that I really like the 500 S&W to me is the wrong bore size, has to small of rim and just looks like it belongs in a revolver that has limited use.

jedman
i wanted a 50-70 soooooooo bad!!!!! i like the 500 linebaugh(.510") and 450gr lfn gc with hs-6. its a tc encore in 23" MGM barrel. while its only going 1235fps, the 500L will do a thru-n-thru on deer. the 500S&w(.500") will beat the 500L on velocity. but i figure that 1200fps is good enuff fer me and the deer!!! i shot my buddy's 500s&w in a handi rifle(i think it was with 440gr wfn gc with h110 )and all i can say is ....OWWWWWWWWWWWW, THAT THING HURTS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! i don't wanna try 50 alaskan!!!!

I am proud member of Basket of Deplorables!!!
"I'm tired of politicians telling Americans to defer their dreams to another day - when they really mean another decade. America is tired of waiting. The moment is now."

Donald J Trump

"democracy is just a stepping stone on the way to socialism." -me REPUBLIC of the USA

​Μολών λαβέ !

todd
tdoyka is offline  
post #28 of 29 (permalink) Old 04-05-2019, 06:39 AM
Senior Member
 
8uck5nort's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jul 2011
Location: Northwest Indiana
Posts: 1,569
Default

My 2 cents.

I owned a handi in the 500 S&W, I have never owned a 45-70. I know shame on me. I too have owned a 445 SuperMag rifle and a 44 Mag handi which are much better suited pistol rounds for carbine use. The 357/358 is even better in my opinion due to a wider selection of bullets.

Most of the 45-70 advantages in a rifle over the 500 SW have already been covered by previous posts.

I think the biggest advantage the 45-70 has is versatility and cost.
It can be loaded from mild to wild. On the wild end it can hurt you and the target just like a 500 SW.
45-70 has a much better bullet selections and better commercial availability for ammo.
45-70 is available in a lot more platforms, single shots, lever guns, bolt actions and revolvers. Why anyone would want to hang on to one of those in a revolver in either cartridge when they pull the trigger is beyond me, but to each his/her own.

So in hindsight I would have probably gone the 45-70 route instead of the 500 SW had I known at the time. But I still got to play with one for a while and even used it one deer season. It is way more than you will need for a midwest whiteltail.

Cartridges for My Entertainment: 22lr, .223 Rem, 6.5x55 Swede, 30-06, 380 ACP, 38 spcl, 357 mag/max, , 35 Remington, 35 Whelen, 358 Norma Mag, 10mm Auto, 45 ACP. Mmmmkay what project can I do next... oh, I can't right now I am going hunting!
8uck5nort is offline  
post #29 of 29 (permalink) Old 04-06-2019, 10:19 PM
Member
 
Join Date: Oct 2007
Location: Kings Mtn, NC
Posts: 509
Send a message via AIM to JimP. Send a message via Yahoo to JimP.
Default 45-70/500 sw

i load my 45-70's with either a 405 gr FP or a 500 gr RN/FP cast bullet to 1300 fps and 1250 fps and shoot them in my Rem rolling block and or a 1873 Springfield SRC. i load my 450 Marlin with a Barnes 300 gr SSP bullet to 1900 fps and shoot it in my NEF Handi rifle. in my 458 SOCOM i load the Barnes 300 gr SSP to 1800 fps and shoot it in my DPMS 458 SOCOM AR 15. in my 500 S & W i load a 465 gr RN/FP cast bullet at 1250 fps and shoot it in my Handi Rifle. all of these rifles with the exception of the Rem rolling block are used by me when ground blind deer hunting here in the woods of NC. Very deadly combinations. works for me. no need to hotrod 45-70 or 500 S & W.....that's what the 450 Marlin is for. love hearing the whack of the bullet when smacking a whitetail. JimP.
JimP. is offline  
Reply

Quick Reply
Message:
Options

Register Now



In order to be able to post messages on the Graybeard Outdoors forums, you must first register.
Please enter your desired user name, your email address and other required details in the form below.

User Name:
Password
Please enter a password for your user account. Note that passwords are case-sensitive.

Password:


Confirm Password:
Email Address
Please enter a valid email address for yourself.

Email Address:
OR

Log-in










Thread Tools
Show Printable Version Show Printable Version
Email this Page Email this Page



Posting Rules  
You may post new threads
You may post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On

 
For the best viewing experience please update your browser to Google Chrome