That's not exactly completely true. I have a Hi Standard Sentinel Model 101 with notches cut into the cylinder for the fireing pin to rest in. So while most firearms don't have that, some do. It's worth looking.
It depends entirely on the make of 22. Some are OK, some are not.
A 22 LR is a no go in both guns, on the H&R it protrudes almost 1/4" from the cylinder,r on the H&A protrude about .02". My question is regarding 22 shorts. The H&R is so small and lightly made, a cap gun looks heavy duty compared to it.
Machine Tom. Seeing SAAMI LR maximum chamber pressures of 24,000 PSI while the short and CB caps are listed at 21,000 PSI. Those are max pressures and I can’t believe a CB cap runs that high in practice after shooting them.
The link below may be helpful. Similar type question. One poster describes a catastrophic failure in a .22 antique revolver while using a .22 short. Best bet is not to shoot.